Ultrasonic Testing (UT) – Non-destructive technique designed to detect structural characteristics of a component, from simple cross sectional thickness to complex geometries for various fabrication or in-service discontinuities. In Ultrasonic Testing, a beam of acoustic waves are introduced into a material for defect detection. The acoustic waves travel through the volume of the material and are reflected and refracted at interfaces. The echoes are then analyzed to define and locate discontinuities. When proper techniques are matched with appropriate equipment, UT is highly sensitive, penetrates very thick or long sections of materials, provides required information to accurately measure the location and the size of defects, provide rapid evaluation of materials and requires access from only one side of the test object.
- Ultrasonic Thickness Scans (straight beam, pulse –echo method). It measures the remaining metal thickness of a specimen (plate, vessel, pipe, etc.). The data collected can be then used to determine an area of metal losses. The thickness monitoring locations are tracked in the data base (Sigma) to be compared with future readings and to establish corrosion rates and corrosion trends in different environments.
- Ultrasonic Lamination Scans (straight beam, pulse–echo method). Detection of planar type defects in plate type materials. It’s common practice in the fabrication process to determine the condition of the base material, ensure it is free of planar (laminar) type defects before the construction of the equipment actually begins.
- Ultrasonic Shearwave Inspection (angle-beam, pulse echo method). It is a single transducer method to determine the shape, size, and orientation of defects commonly found in welds, castings, and forgings. The inspection may take place at different stages during the fabrication process, after the equipment is completed, before it is put in service, and on in-service equipment to determine if any type of defects detrimental to the optimal operation (fatigue cracking for example) is occurring.